History of Aberystwyth
to the year 1


3000BC

Writing

Cuneiform (an early form of writing) developed in the city of Sumer - (Mesopotamia Iraq).

Iron

Iron is used in small quantities in the Middle East, it will take 1700 years for the knowledge of how to attain a temperature of 1537°C required for smelting iron to spread around Africa and Eurasia.

Backgammon

Earliest known game found at the city of Ur - Mesopotamia (Iraq). This is a recognisable precursor to backgammon.

Oldest Porn Stash

Carved onto a basalt wall of the Kangjiashimenji grotto in the high Tien Shan Mountains (Xinjiang region of northwest China) is an explicit scene depicting an ancient fertility ritual. The Kangjiashimenji Petroglyphs are a very rare depiction of human procreation in art of this age.

2850BC

Egypt

Egypt combined when the kingdom of Upper Egypt defeated Lower Egypt

2600-2000BC

Pyramid

The city of Caral in Peru includes several pyramids

~2600BC

Sun Flower

Sun Flower domesticated in Mexico

2300BC

Stonehenge

Large stones transported from Wales by the Beaker People to form the stone circles of Stonehenge.

2100-700BC

British Bronze Age

Although small numbers of bronze tools have been used in Britain for hundreds of years, these are believed to have been imported. It is not until about 2100BC that the technology to create bronze is found in Britain, making bronze tools much more common.

2095BC

Written Law

written for Ur-Nammu, ruler of Sumeria between 2112BC and 2095BC, and now know as the Ur-Nammu codex, is the earliest known sets if written laws. Iraq

2000BC

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

1800BC

Medical text

A text called the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus covers medical issues relating to fertility, pregnancy, childbirth etc, was found at the village of El-Lahun in Egypt

Copper

Copper is mined at Plynlimon (Mountain 15km east of Aber and the wettest place in Britain where it rains 2 out of 3 days)

1760BC

Hammurabi Code

The best preserved set of laws from the ancient world is a large stone engraved with 282 laws know as the Hammurabi Code and was found in Susa (Iran)

1750BC

Mathematics

Mathematics practised in Sumeria (southern Mesopotamia [south eastern Iraq])

1700BC

Mammoth

The world's last remaining population of Woolly mammoths (on Wrangel Island Russia) becomes extinct.

1628BC

Volcano

Volcanic eruption of the Greek Aegean island of Santorini produces very cold winter

1600BC

Medical text

A text called the Edwin Smith Papyrus is part of a text on trauma surgery. Egypt

1349BC

Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun is buried at Thebes Egypt

1300BC-400AD

Iron Age

About 2000 years after the start of the Bronze Age, furnace technology achieved even higher temperatures which allowed the smelting of iron ores which are much more plentiful.

Starting in the same area as the Bronze Age around 1300BC, the Iron Age spread out from the around the eastern Mediterranean and to the east of the Black Sea. Around 100 years later is was in India and it would be a further 200 years before started to spread into Europe.

1300BC

Celts

First Celts appear (in the upper Danube)

Stonehenge

Stone circle at Stonehenge completed

1170BC

Strike

After a period where the wages and promises due the builders and artisans at the Thebes' necropolis (Egypt) are forgotten, the workers go on strike. This is the world 1st ever recorded strike. When this proves ineffective they begin to loot the tombs.

1005BC

King David

David becomes king of Israel

1000BC

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

970BC

King Solomon

Solomon becomes king of Israel

850BC

Homer

Homer inscribes the Iliad and Odyessy - collections of myths, folk tales and history from the previous couple of hundred years! (Greece)

800-100AD

British Iron Age

This is a period of about 900 years which started with the ability to smelt iron. Iron tools became more much plentiful than bronze tools were, which led to many cultural changes. It is the distinctive cultural practices of this period that define it, and it is the cultural change that followed the Roman invasion of Britain that starts to end the British Iron Age.

753BC

Rome

Rome Founded Italy

750BC

Astronomy

Astronomy in Babylon has advanced to the point where they able to predict eclipses (Iraq)

650BC

Coin

Coinage invented in Lydia Turkey

6C

University Takshashila 1st

World's 1st university formed at Taxila Pakistan

563-483 BC

Buddha

Buddha born in what is now Nepal

551-479BC

Confucius

Confucius the Chinese philosopher is born

525BC

Persia

Persian Empire absorbs Egypt

509BC

Republic

Rome becomes a Republic (Italy)

500BC

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

500-51BC

Hill Fort

On Pendinas (the hill on the southern edge of Aberystwyth) are the remains of one of the largest Iron Age hillforts in west Wales. The stone walls of this fort are covered by top soil but the ramparts and ditched defences can still easily be seen. Excavations revealed a smaller, older, inner fort and a larger, later, outer fort that is believed to have supported a population of about 100 The fort is believed to have been built by invaders from the sea.

5C

University Nalanda 2nd

Buddhist university formed at Nalanda India

433BC

Parthenon

Parthenon (in Athens) completed (Greece)

427-347BC

Plato

Plato (Greece)

C4-C1BC

Celts

'Celts' enter Britain.
Note that work on stonehenge started 1700 years before the Celts arrived in Britain. Genetic and archaeological evidence indicates that the Celts didn't arrive in huge numbers and overrun the island, but rather that the local population adopted many of the new technical advances and cultural fashions that a small number of people from the mainland brought with them.

390BC

Celts

Celts overrun Rome (Italy)

372-287BC

Theophrastus - Botany

Amongst work on many subjects, Theophrastus, produces, Historia Plantarum and De Causis Plantarum which would remain the most important books on botany for 1500 years. (Greece)

335BC

Aristotle

Aristotle returns to Athens to open a lyceum containing a museum of natural history and a library (Greece)

331BC

Wheat

Large amounts of wheat is grown in south-east England and threshed in large barns

325-265BC

Euclid - Mathematics

Euclid's 13 volume compendium on geometry Elements remained the most important work on mathematics for over 2000 years. (Greece)

325BC

Alexander in Egypt

Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great

300-200BC

Medical text

Huangdi Neijing: Oldest known chinese medical text (China)

287-212BC

Archimedes

Archimedes born in Syracuse (Italy)

275BC

Library

Built in 323BC, the library and museum at Alexandria are, by this time, being used by the scholars of many nations

~240BC

Cool

Philo of Byzantium builds a thermoscope (thermometer without the scale) in which a water-air meniscus moves along a tube as the temperature changes. (cf Mercury thermometer 1714 and 100° 1742)

220-200BC

Wall

A long wall is built in China. This is a 1st major wall of many Great Walls that were be built over a thousand year period. Little of this wall now remains cf the wall that was started in 1368

146BC

Greece/Rome

After many years of unrest Rome conquers Greece turning it into a province of the Roman Empire

late C2

Kaching

The first coins start to be produced in Britain. These are thick copies of coins used in Gaul with the head of Apollo on one side and a bull on the reverse. They were made of an alloy of copper, zinc, lead & tin called 'potin'. A horde of these was found in Thurrock (in Essex), so this type is now called Thurrock potins.

~90BC

Silk Road

The 8000km trading route called the 'Silk Road' extends out of China as far west as Iran

~87BC

Astronomical Calculator

In the year 1900 divers off the Greek island of Antikythera recovered a corroded geared mechanism from an ancient shipwreck. Subsequent research has shown this to be a sophisticated Astronomical Calculator and points to it having been built around the year 87BC to a refined design to that originally devised by Archimedes over 100 years earlier.

55BC

Expedition

Julius Caesar leads expedition into Britain

54BC

The Romans are Coming

Julius Caesar leads invasion of Britain. Having won a few battles he returns. It would not be until 43AD that the Romans would return to colonise Britain.

45BC

It's a Date

The Julian calendar with an average year length of 365¼ days is introduced into the Roman world

4BC

Jesus

Probable date of the birth of Jesus

1BC-1AD

Year Dot

In the current western calendar the year 1BC is followed by the year 1 AD - there is no year zero