History of Aberystwyth
to the year 3000 BC


Key

Aberystwyth



Britain



World



Space



Geological Events



Medicine



Computing



Technical Development



Agriculture




~4.4 billion

Crusty

The planet has now sufficiently cooled to start forming a rocky crust

~1.7 billion

Natural Nuke

Several uranium rich mineral veins in the Oklo region of Gabon go critical and start a natural nuclear fission reaction which pulsed for several hundreds of thousands of years.

550-490 million

Joined Up Life

For 2 billion years life on this planet was no more complex than single celled bacteria. Around 540 million years ago the fossil record starts to show many different multicelled creatures. Geologists call the rapid expansion in the diversity of life during this period the Cambrian Explosion

~500 million

Land Grab

Plants start to colonise land.

~425 million

Last One Out's a Fish

Animals start to colonise land.

~3.4 million

Butchering

Earliest known use of stone tools to butcher meat in the Lower Awash Valley of Ethiopia

~200,000BC

Granny Goes walkabout

Modern Homo sapiens start to expand out of East Africa. Other human species expanded out of Africa much earlier in the past but are now all extinct.

~73,000BC

Whoosh - and the some

A supervolcano, which many believe is the largest volcano in the history of the planet, erupts at Toba, Sumatra (Indonesia)

~35,000BC

Counting

Oldest known counting artefact, a notched baboon bone, discovered in Swaziland

~30-25,000BC

The Last

Having coexisted with modern man for thousands of years Homo neanderthalensis, the closest species to modern man ever to have existed, finally becomes extinct.

~23,000BC

Gravettian

Gravettian culture established in Central and Eastern Europe expands east and west reaching into Britain

18,000BC

Potty

Parts of a large pottery bowl, believed to be a cooking cauldron, found in southern China

~13,500BC

Big Thaw

The Ice Age ends. Glaciers retreat. Water levels rise by 40m mainly due to the melting of the North American ice sheet.

Is Anybody Home?

Absent for thousands of years due to the ice age, humans begin to return to Britain, which is still connected by land to Europe.

~13,000BC

Dogs

Dogs domesticated

~10,000BC

Chill

Period of intense cold. Glaciers in Britain re-form

Chicken

Chicken domesticated in Vietnam

~9800BC

Wheat

Wheat domesticated in Levant

~9500BC

Ireland Island

Rising sea levels flooded the gouge left by a large glacier and separated Ireland from Europe-Britain.

~8500BC

Crops

Sheep, Cats & Goats Domesticated.
Barley, chickpeas, peas, beans, flax & in the Fertile Crescent

~8300-7300BC

Figs

Figs Trees domesticated around the Mediterranean

~8000BC

Rice

Rice domesticated in China

~6500BC

Great Britain

About 3000 years after Ireland became an island, continued melting ice raise the sea levels, flooding the lower lying coastal parts of continental Europe. Some outlying lands become islands, the largest of these islands is now called Great Britain.

~6250BC

Maize

Maize domesticated in Mexico

~6200BC

Maize

Oldest known arrow heads found in the Sibudu Cave in South Africa

~6000BC

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

Chillies

Chilli peppers domesticated in Ecuador

Weave

Textiles are being woven in Turkey

Flint

Flint is rare in this region, but during the Ice Age glaciers moving along the Irish Sea deposited flint on the beaches around Aberystwyth. Evidence has been found of a Mesolithic(8000-400BC) settlement just south of the harbour. Flint was fashioned into tools and weapons and is believed to have been traded with inland tribes in this area.

5500BC

Copper

Copper has already been used for thousands of years but it comes form rare minerals that include native copper. Copper chemically combined with other elements is much less rare and can be released by a process called smelting. Smelting requires high temperatures, and this was now available in pottery kilns. Copper smelted for the 1st time (in Iran)

Cheese

Examination of ancient pottery fragments found in Poland have been linked to the earliest known cheese making.

5000BC

Linen

Linen cloth is being made in Egypt

4800BC

Farming

Britain's earliest attempts at farming and forest clearing.

4000BC

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

Horse

Horse 1st domesticated by nomads in Ukraine (Dereivka)

Honey Bee

Honey Bees are being kept in clay pots in Egypt

Silk

Silk is being produced in China

Cotton

Cotton is being woven in the Indus Valley, India

~3800BC

Thaw

Sea levels continue to rise - now 8m below the current levels

3500BC

House of Stone

Knap of Howar on Orkney is the oldest preserved stone house in Britain

3300-400BC

Bronze Age

This is a period of thousands of years and defined by the use of bronze. The period starts at different times in different parts of the world depending when they acquired the technology. The technology requires some understanding of mining, minerals, smelting, high temperature kilns and metalworking. It is accompanied by the cultural and military advances that came with having access to advanced bronze tools. Smelted copper was already known for thousands of years but adding tin or arsenic made the metal much easier to work. Copper and Tin ore was not available everywhere and it is very rare to find them close to each other, so trade and transportation also had to develop.

The bronze age started around 3300BC around the eastern Mediterranean and to the east of the Black Sea. Around 300 years later is was in India but it would be 700 years after that before started to spread into Europe.

3300BC

Writing

Decorative symbols developed into hieroglyphs (an early form of writing) developed in Egypt.

3100BC

Stonehenge

Earth circle built at Stonehenge. cf stones in 2300BC