Henry I becomes King of England (till 1135)
Henry I becomes King of England (till 1135)
The church at Llanbadarn was destroyed by Ithel and Madoc
The Norman Conquest brought with it a feudal system where all lands belonged to the King. Cardiganshire was held by the Welsh Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn who refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of King Henry I.
Owain ap Cadwgan abducted Nest and her children. This act so enraged Henry I that he threatened to attack. Cadwgan ab Bleddyn tried to persuade his son to return Nest, but he fled with her to Ireland.
Nest had 2 children with Owain before being returned to her husband.
Gilbert Fitz Richard (aka Gilbert Strongbow, Gilbert de Clare) was given Cardiganshire on the understanding that the peoples would be brought under the control of the King.
As part of this campaign Gilbert Fitz Richard built a fort of a ringwork and bailey
design opposite Llanbadarn near the mouth of the river Ystwyth.
The earthworks can still be seen on the ridge called Tan-y-Castell
to the south of Tan-y-bwlch beach). This came to be known as
[Aber- mouth of the river -ystwyth Ystwyth.]
A chapel is recorded in the castle
Llanbadarn church re-founded by Gilbert de Clare Tower and porch added to the church at Llanbadarn Fawr
The clas at Llanbadarn is broken up and the church was given, along with the tithes, offering etc, to the Benedictine monks of St Peter at Gloucester,. A group of monks were sent over to form a priory, but it seems not all the Welsh clergy were sent away.
Griffith ap Rhys laid seige to it [Aberystwyth Castle], but was dreadfully handled by Ralph Steward:
encamped his forces at Glâs Grûg, in this parish, previously to his unsuccessful attempt on Aberystwith castle : his failure in this enterprise was by some superstitiously attributed to an act of impiety, of which he was guilty, in taking some cattle to refresh his forces from within the limits of the extensive sanctuary attached to the church of Llanbadarn.
Al-Khazini describes force of gravity in text on hydrostatics. Merv Turkmenistan
As part of their campaign to drive the Normans and their Flemish allies out of this area, Aberystwyth Castle #1 was burnt down by Gruffudd ap Rhys, Owen Gwynedd and his brother Cadwalader around the year 1135
Richard de Clare the Norman Lord of Ceredigion is ambushed and killed. This along with the civil war in England, allows the Welsh to recover control of much of Wales.
Defeat of the Normans at the battle of Crug Mawr slows Norman expansion in Wales and annexes Ceredigion from Deheubarth
With the Normans no longer holding the area the Benedictine monks loose control of Llanbadarn Fawr leaving the clas to return.
John (Ieuan), arch-priest (arch-offeiriad) of Llanbadarn canonized for this great piety.
Ieuan, archpriest of Llanbadarn died.
Gruffydd ap Cynan, Prince of North Wales dies, his sons Owen and Cadwallader work to revive Welsh Power.
Civil war in England as Matilda lands an army in Sussex to reclaim the throne.
Matilda regains English crown for 6 months.
5 years of anarchy ensues after Matilda is forced out of Oxford
At the beginning of 1142 Cadwalader's is living with his Norman wife Alice in Aberystwyth Castle (#2) that he rebuilt in 1135. Later that year Anarawd ap Gruffydd was killed by Cadwalader's men after a dispute concerning Anarawd's support for acts against the Normans. (Anarawd supported Cadwalader's older brother Owen Gwynedd in several campaigns against the Normans and was about to marry Owen's daughter.) In exasperation Owen marched an army up to Aberystwyth castle driving Cadwalader out and burning the castle to the ground.
Sulien ap Rhythmarch (grandson of Sulien the Wise) died. Described as: a man of great knowledge, clerk of Llanbadern, a teacher, a peacemaker between Welsh and English and one of the College of Llanbadarn.
University of Paris Founded
The first insurance policy (for fire and plague) is issued in Iceland
After his own son dies King Stephen is forced to recognise his nephew (Matildas Son) Henry Plantagernet as heir to the English throne
King Stephen dies and Henry Plantagernet ( aka Henry II) is crowned
Henry II receives papal bull to conquer and rule Ireland
Henry II decides to take control Wales again. The Normans and the House of Clare retake the area. Roger Fitz Richard (grandson of Gilbert FitzRichard of Clare who built the 1109 castle) builds a new earthwork castle at a different site. The location of the new castle is yet to be identified.
Henry II converts the 40 days military service that everybody owed him into higher taxes. With this money he is able to maintain a full time army of mercenaries.
Robert Fitz-Stephen starts work on Strata Florida Abbey (Ystrad Fflur) with much of the stone brought by sea from Bristol. A small group of Norman Cistercian Monks from Whitland Abbey moved in. Soon, however, the area is taken by Lord Rhys. Despite the Cistercian being brought in by the Normans they were popular with the Welsh and Lord Rhys became their enthusiastic patron. Around this time the Abbey moved to another location 5km away. Strata Florida quickly became more important than Llanbadarn. The Abbey wasn't consecrated until 1201.
At the beginning of the 1164-1170 Welsh uprising, the castle was destroyed by Lord Rhys (= Rhys ap Gruffud) returning this area to Welsh control.
University of Oxford takes off when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris
Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke invades Ireland with Norman adventurers, this is the beginning of Norman-English rule in Ireland.
Suspicious of Strongbow's growing power after he's proclaimed himself King of Leinster, Henry II lands in Waterford to claim Ireland for himself
Annual Eisteddfod founded by Lord Rhys ap Gruffudd
In 1188 Welsh born archdeacon Giraldus,
accompanied the Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin of Exeter, on a tour of Wales recruiting soldiers for the
He was unimpressed at the informality of the place, noting that Llanbadarn is ruled by a 'lay-abbot' (Ednowain bishop of Llanbadarn) whose only clerical attribute was to take ecclesiastical revenues.
He also noted that the churches income was 100 marks, which was a huge amount for the time.
Having rested that night at Llanpadarn Vawr, or the church of Paternus the Great, we attracted many persons to the service of Christ on the following morning. It is remarkable that this church, like many others in Wales and Ireland, has a lay abbot; for a bad custom has prevailed amongst the clergy, of appointing the most powerful people of a parish stewards, or, rather, patrons, of their churches; who, in process of time, from a desire of gain, have usurped the whole right, appropriating to their own use the possession of all the lands, leaving only to the clergy the altars, with their tenths and oblations, and assigning even these to their sons and relations in the church. Such defenders, or rather destroyers, of the church, have caused themselves to be called abbots, and presumed to attribute to themselves a title, as well as estates, to which they have no just claim. In this state we found the church of Llanpadarn, without a head. A certain old man, waxen old in iniquity (whose name was Eden Oen, son of Gwaithwoed), being abbot, and his sons officiating at the altar. But in the reign of king Henry I., when the authority of the English prevailed in Wales, the monastery of St. Peter at Gloucester held quiet possession of this church; but after his death, the English being driven out, the monks were expelled from their cloisters, and their places supplied by the same violent intrusion of clergy and laity, which had formerly been practised. It happened that in the reign of king Stephen, who succeeded Henry I., a knight, born in Armorican Britain, having travelled through many parts of the world, from a desire of seeing different cities, and the manners of their inhabitants, came by chance to Llanpadarn. On a certain feast-day, whilst both the clergy and people were waiting for the arrival of the abbot to celebrate mass, he perceived a body of young men, armed, according to the custom of their country, approaching towards the church; and on enquiring which of them was the abbot, they pointed out to him a man walking foremost, with a long spear in his hand. Gazing on him with amazement, he asked, "If the abbot had not another habit, or a different staff, from that which he now carried before him?" On their answering, "No!" he replied, "I have seen indeed and heard this day a wonderful novelty!" and from that hour he returned home, and finished his labours and researches. This wicked people boasts, that a certain bishop of their church (for it formerly was a cathedral) was murdered by their predecessors; and on this account, chiefly, they ground their claims of right and possession. No public complaint having been made against their conduct, we have thought it more prudent to pass over, for the present, the enormities of this wicked race with dissimulation, than exasperate them by a further relation.
The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, holds King Richard I (Lionheart) of England to ransom. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Herbert Walter organizes the collection of the ransom and suppresses a plot to overthrow Richard by his brother Prince John.
In 1196 Lord Rhys, (son of
Lord Gruffudd ap Rhys,)
died. He had large territorial possessions, and was, it would seem,
Feudal Chief, or Lord Paramount of Cardiganshire. His son
who resided in Aberystwyth Castle, was appointed to succeed him, to the exclusion of his other son
Maelgwn, who was disinherited.
Castle #4 is most likely at the same location as castles #1 & #2.
Maelgwn in conjunction with
Gwenwynwyn (Price of Powys and the son of
Owain Cyfeiliog (= Owen Cyfeiliawc),
collected a great force and fell suddenly upon his brother at Aberystwyth Castle, taking it and the town from him.
Gruffudd was handed over to the Normans who confined him in Corfe Castle.
This is the first historical notice of any town of Aberystwyth.
In 1198 Gruffudd was released by the Normans and regained most of his land in Cardiganshire
Introduction of Hindu-Arabic number system into Europe
Gruffudd dies leaving 2 sons, Rhys and Owain
Gwenwynwyn becomes a prisoner of the English and Llywelyn ab Iorwerth (= Llewelyn ap Iorwerth) (prince of North Wales) advances an army to take his lands and return them to Rhys and Owain the sons of Gruffudd. Maelgwn ap Rhys, fearing a hostile visit, razed to the ground his own castle at Ystradmeuric, and also burnt his castles at Aberystwyth and Dinerth.
Finding on his arrival that Aberystwyth Castle was destroyed,
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth
immediately set about building another for himself.
The ditches excavated to protect Castle can still be seen today.
The castle was given over to Rhys and Owain.
University of Cambridge founded
Maelgwn ap Rhys along with his brother Rhys Grug (= Rhys the Hoarse) and King John combined to succeed Llewelyn ap Iorwerth. Rhys and Owain refused to submit, so the King John ordered Foulke, viscount of Cardiff and warden of the Marches (= Falkes de Bréauté = Falkes of Breauté) along with Maelgwn and Rhys Grug to compel them.
Faced with such a force Rhys and Owain sued for peace and, after doing homage and relinquishing the lands between the Dovey and Aeron, were allowed to keep their remaining territories.
Foulke, strengthened the castle and garrisoned it with the Kings troops.
Disappointed with the leniency shown to their nephews Maelgwn and Rhys Grug changed allegiance and laid siege to Aberystwyth castle. Eventually, they took the castle and razed it to the ground.
Seeing a chance for retaliation on their uncles, Rhys and Owain put the lands of Maelgwn to the sword in a act of support for King John.
Rhys Grug, on the run from Faulke, was obliged to flee with his wife and children to Maelgwn at Aberystwyth Castle
Barons force King John to sign Articles of the Barons (largely based on the Charter of Liberties from 1110) reducing the power of the monarchy and increasing the power of the landed nobility. Almost all of the Magna Carta has now been repealed from British law.
King John gets the Pope to annul the Magna Carta and brings in French mercenaries to help with his battles with his Barons
Finding that the young lord Rhys had forsaken him Llewelyn ap Iorwerth put himself under the protection of William Marshal, Earl of Pembrokshire. And so again Llewelyn ap Iorwerth marched an army and took Aberystwyth Castle.
Mongols reach Europe
Chinese use rockets against Mongol invaders, soon they would be used by the Mongals in their invasions.
Earl on Pembroke leads barons to insurrection against King Henry III
Theodoric of Lucca (Italy) uses wine as an antiseptic and narcotics in sponges under the nose of patients undergoing operations. The start of anaesthetics.
Mongols use gunpowder to capture most of Eastern Europe.
Having taken Eastern Europe and moved down as far as Silesia, Mongols return from Europe on hearing of the death of Ôgedei Kahn
A poem makes the 1st known reference to the Palace of the Rheidol (Plas Crûg), a castellated mansion/stronghouse surrounded by a moat on the Eastern edge of Aberystwyth (the last tower was pulled down in the 1968 and is now a School)
The start of the building of Alhambra Palace in
Granada (Spain) it would be completed in 1354
Moors forced out of Seville and in the following year out of Portugal
Bacon fights to make science part of the curriculum at Oxford University
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, with a large army, recovered Llanbadarn from Norman control.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd has gained control over a large past of Wales and assumed the role of 'Price of Wales'. The Principality of Wales was recognised by King Henry III of England in 1267.
1st use of propelled bullets. The Song armies of China fend off Mongol invaders by shooting bullets from bamboo tubes
Simon de Montford proposes that a council of 9 be appointed to advise the King on his choice of Ministers.
Simon de Montford is, in effect, the uncrowned King of England
Simon de Montford is powerful enough to call together a Parliament against the wishes of the King, This was the first Parliament to summoned elected representatives from some boroughs.
Prince Edward escapes from custody and gains support from the Lords of the Welsh Marches
The King sought revenge on the barons at the Battle of Evesham. After losing, the barons (including Simon de Montford) where killed, rather than the usual custom of holding noblemen to ransom.
King Henry III of England recognises that Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (Llewellyn the Last) as The Prince of North Wales at the treaty of Montgomery. Llewellyn ap Gruffyd paid homage to the King Henry III and expected homage from the Welsh Lords.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd's assassination by his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd along with Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn and his son Owain ap Dafydd is only prevented by a snow storm. Only later in the year was the plot discovered after which Dafydd ap Gruffydd fled to Shrewsbury from where he staged raids on Llywelys's lands.
After a marriage contract Eleanor de Montford sails to Wales but is captured by 'pirates' in the pay of King Edward.
Llewellyn ap Gruffyd refuses to pay homage to Edward I and so begins the 1st war between the English and the Welsh
Edward I conquers Wales, The wars of 1277 fragment Wales, culminating in the war of 1282 which ended Welsh independence. To consolidate his gains King Edward I started building various castles around Wales.
Edwards army, commanded by this brother Edmund (who was Lord of Cardigan since 1265), moves up from the south and occupies the site, immediately starting work on the foundations for a new castle built on a small hillock (15m) by the sea (so that it could be supplied by ships) near the banks of the river Rheidol and with a marsh to the north (which restricted lines of attack).
Henry de Lacy (Earl of Lincoln), superintendent, gets £918 for work on the castle. Later William de Valence is in command and gets £1400 to pay the masons before they desert and a further £200 for a town wall. It will not be until 1289 before the castle is complete.
King Edward I issued a charter making the settlement near the castle a free borough. 1300 men from as far away as the South-West of England were recruited to come and construct the castle. Soon after King Edward grants trading and municipal privileges and a small town starts around the castle.
Edward I and Llywelyn ap Gruffydd sign a peace Treaty at Aberconwy in which Llywelyn ap Gruffydd is allowed to keep control of his lands, but ends Welsh self rule after his death.
Eleanor de Montford is released from captivity.
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd marries Eleanor de Montford at Worcester Cathedral in the presence of King Edward
Roger de Molis becomes the 1st Constable of the growing castle
Mongols under the rule of Kublai Khan defeat the Sung dynasty in China and form the Yuan Dynasty which rules of Mongolia and China.
Bogo de Knoville takes over as Constable
By 1280 the small town around the castle is protected by a stone wall with 4 gates. At this time the population is all English
The Constable of the Castle is invited to dine with the Gruffydd ap Maredudd (the local Prince). This turns out to be a trap and part of the Welsh rebellion against Edward I. Much of the incomplete Castle is destroyed along with the town walls. Many of the townsmen were slaughtered.
The Prince of North Wales Llewellyn ap Gruffyd is killed near Builth Wells.
James of St George is sent by the King to reconstruct the Castle.
Edward I stays in the castle for 6 days
Local Prince Rhys ap Maredudd had assisted the English in
the 1277-81 war, but now, resenting the imposition of the Shire system,
rebelled and captured several Castles. By this time Aberystwyth Castle
was sufficiently strong that he only managed to damage some of the town walls
At this time the castle is known to have a Kings Chamber, Stables and a Bakehouse.
Edward I incorporates the town of Aberystwyth under the name 'Ville de Lanbadarn' and allows it to have ditches and walls to protect it.
Aberystwyth Castle was finally completed, and is strong enough to withstand a siege in 1294-5.
University of Lisbon Founded Portugal
Famine in England
Angry at the extra taxation levied for Edward's campaigns in France, Welsh forces again siege Aberystwyth castle. The siege is broken with sea borne supplies sent from Bristol.
Town has 111 occupied holdings (144 in 1311)
Start of the Ottoman empire, that will last until 1923