History of Aberystwyth
1BC-1100


1BC-1AD

Year Dot

In the current western calendar the year 1BC is followed by the year 1 AD - there is no year zero

1

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

Not yet

There is no evidence of any human habitation on the current site of Aberystwyth - it is not know when or why the Iron age Hill Fort on Pendinas ceased to be used, however, around this time all similar structures in the rest of Britain were similarly abandoned.

6

Exams

In China it becomes a requirement that candidates for political office take civil service examinations

30

Crucifixion

Probable date of crucifixion of Christ

40-90

Pharmaecopia

Pedanius Dioscorides is the author of De Materia Medica which remained the most important book on medical herbs for 1500 years. Turkey

43

Britain colonised

Claudis leads Roman invasion of Britain - Britain becomes a Roman colony.

London

London (Londinium) is founded by the Romans

48

49

40-407

Roman Occupation

It is known that the Romans built forts in this general area and exploited local mineral deposits (lead and silver). Roman artefacts have been found within several km of Aberystwyth, but there is no evidence of them using the actual site of Aberystwyth and it is believed to have remained uninhabited. Llanbadarn is reputed to be close to where the Roman road from North to South Wales (called Sarn Helen) crosses the river Rheidol. Sarn Helen passes close to Strata Florida and Llanddewi Brefi which along with Lanbadarn are the 3 most important ecclesiastic places in medieval Ceredigion.

61

London sacked

London sacked by the Trinovantes and Iceni tribes. The Iceni of East Anglia, are led by their queen Boudicca.

62

Boudicca

Boudicca's revolt against Rome fails and she commits suicide

79

Vesuvius

Eruption of mount Vesuvius Italy

105

Paper

The invention of paper is reported to the Eastern Han Emperor of China
(Archaeological evidence suggests that paper had already been in use for 200 years)

118

Rome mega

Rome's population exceeds a million Italy

128

Imports

Roman agriculture declines as cheap imports from North Africa depresses wheat prices Italy

Parthenon

Parthenon (in Rome) completed Italy

129-200

Galen

Galen's works on medicine were the standard reference works for western medicine for well over 1000 years. Turkey

286

British Empire

Carausius the Roman military commander given the task of preventing piracy in the English Channel is sentenced to death for profiting from piracy. Benefiting from anti-Roman sentiment he rebelled from Rome and declared himself the Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. His reign was ended in 293, not by Rome, but by his treasurer Allectus, who assassinated him and seized the title.

333

Decommissioning

Rome starts to withdraw troops from Britain

350

Sweet

Sugar is being crystallised in India

360

Attacks from north

Scots and Picts cross Hadiran's Wall to attack Romans in England

400-410

Huns

The much feared Huns moved through what it now Ukraine, which lead to a westward migration of many people in their path.

402

Redeployment

Half of the Roman troops in Britain al recalled to defend the contracting Roman empire.

406

Cut Off

Attacks on the Roman Empire in Europe cut Britain off from Rome

407

Redeployment

After mutinies and several rapid changes of leaders, the Roman provinces in Britain recognise one of the local soldiers Constantine III as their Roman Emperor. Constantine III takes the remaining troops to fight in Europe leaving the Roman rule in Britain without militarily supported. Many Romans chose to stay behind not wishing to leave/move their families.

410

August 24: Rome falls

Seeking protection from marauding Hun armies, the Visigoths migrated across what it now Germany and into the Roman Empire. After months of poor treatment by the Romans, the Visigoths destroy the Roman army and overrun Rome Italy

~430

441

Immigration

The westward movement of the Huns into North Eastern Europe led to a build up of people in North Western Europe and some of them took to the water and over the North Sea. The Saxons establish colony in Essex. Over the next 150 years the Angles, Saxon, Jutes and Frisians migrate from Northern Germany to Britain.

446

Help

Rome ignores Briton's request for help defending itself against invasion.

449-590

English Foreigners Settle Britain

Initially Angles and Saxons mercenaries where invited into Britain to help protect local tribes. Over the next 150 years or so, many waves of Angles and Saxons came to settle - displacing the Britons where necessary. (Angles forming the Kingdom of Northumbria)

451-453

Huns in Italy

Atilla leads Huns into Italy

455

Vandlas in Rome

Vandals sack Rome Italy

476

Rome falls

Fall of the Roman Empire

490

Romano-Britain vs Anglo-Saxon

Last Romano-Britain battle against Anglo-Saxon at Badon Hill

516

Monastery

A band of monks lead by St Padarn (from Brittany) established a clas or monastery in Maes Heli. Padarn stayed for 21 years as an abbot / bishop before returning to France.
The monastery - church - village came to be know as Llanbadarn and was the most significant settlement in this area for the next 600 years.

The New Aberystwyth Guide - TJL Pritchard, 1824,[15]

HISTORICAL. NOTICES OF LLANBADARN VAWR.*
It derived its name from Paternus, a distinguished Saint in the British History, of whom Cressy and Archbishop Usher give the following account. "The sanctity of St. Dubricius and St. David, drew into Britain, from foreign parts, St. Paternus, a devout young man, about the year 516, together with 847 Monks, who accompanied him: these fixed themselves in a place called Mauritania, and there Paternus built a church and monastery, in which he placed the Monks, under an Economist, a Provost, and a Dean. This monastery seems to have sent abroad, many colonies of religious men into the province, for we find that this saint built many monasteries and churches, through all the region called Ceretica, now Cardiganshire. The church he erected in Mauritania, was raised to the dignity of an Episcopal see, which he governed for one and twenty years, and was from him called Paternensis : he was recalled into his own native country of Lesser Britany, where he was made Bishop of Vannes, having left Kinoc, as successor to his former Bishopric." Mauritania is supposed to be a latinized British name of Llanbadarn vawr. The writer of the life of St. Paternus, or Patern, says, " he by feeding governed, and by governing fed the church of Ceretica." " Padarn was the son of Pedredin ab Emyr Llydaw, and cousin of Cadvan, with whom he came into Britain, and was the first of all in the college of Illtyd, (in Glamorgan-shire,) where he was dignified a Bishop. He removed from thence, and founded a congregation in Caredigion, at a place thence called Llanbadarn vawr, consisting of 120 members, where be had the title of Archbishop. He was one of the most distinguished saints of Britain, and several churches were dedicated to him. He was ranked with Dewi and Teilo, in the in the Welsh Historical Triads, under the appellation of 'The three blessed visitors of the Isle of Britain,' for they went about, preaching the faith to all degrees of people, not only without reward, but with alleviating the distresses of the poor, as far as their means extended.'-Cambrian Biography, page 278.
* The etymology of its name is simple. Llanbadarn vawr signifies the great church of Badarn, or Padarn, who erected it. Llan, as well as Eglwys, is the Welsh for church, and vawr for great.

519

Wessex

Kingdom of Wessex Founded (south west England)

541-542

Plague

Plague kills millions around the Mediterranean.

570-632

Muhammad

Muhammad Saudi Arabia

595

Mercia

Kingdom of Mercia founded (the part of England east of Wales)

The Romans Are Back

At this time the population of Britain are either Pagan or Celtic Christian organised as independent bishoprics. Pope Gregory sends missionaries to Britain to convert them to the Roman form Christianity with allegiance to the papacy. The mission is lead be a Benedictine monk called Augustine.

~602

Bishop

As part of his mission Augustine sought meetings (Synods) with the local Celtic Christian bishops. At the 1st of these the bishop of Llanbadarn was recoded as one of the 7 bishops present.

688

British laws

Ine, the new King of Wessex draws up the earliest code of British laws that have survived

711

Arabic Spain

Moors invade southern Spain taking over from the Visigoths who moved in soon after the fall of the Roman empire 300 years earlier. Over 4 years the Moors moved north and took control of almost all of the Iberian peninsular. It would be nearly 800 years later that the last Arabic city would fall to the Christians in Spain.

720

Saxon Ravages

The Welsh Chronicles record that the diocese of Llanbadarn was ravaged by Saxons. This is the last mention of an independent diocese. Subsequently, the see (seat = sedes in Latin) is dissolved and Llanbadarn is absorbed into the bishopric of St David's.

757

Offa

Offa sizes the Kingdom of Mercia uniting most of England under his rule

779

Offa's Dyke

'Offa's Dyke' is built to keep the Welsh out of England

780-850

Al Kkwarizmi

The Arab mathematician al-Khwarizmi who many achievements include devising square roots and founding algebra Uzbekistan?

785

Spend a penny

The penny coin is introduced by King Offa. A penny would remain in use till 1971 until it was replaced by a 'New Penny".

787

Viking raids

The Viking raids on Britain begin

796

Trade treaty

Trade treaty between Emperor Charlemagne and King Offa - exporting English woven fabrics

830

House of Wisdom

Foundation of 'The House of Wisdom' Bayt al-Hikmah in Baghdad, which brought together manuscripts in Greek, Hindu, Persian, Egyptian, etc. The main purpose of this vast library (1,000,000 items by the 11th century) was to allow these works to be translated into Arabic, but it was also a great centre for study and included an observatory. The existence of many, long since perished, Greek texts is only know to us because of the Arabic translations made here. For the 1st time the intellectual achievements made by many great civilizations were brought together which opened the path for Muslim advances in Astronomy, Geography, Mathematics, Medicine and Science.

9C

Salerno medical school

Salerno medical school formed - there is debate as to whether this institution counts as a university - if it does, then this is the oldest University in Europe. (southern Italy)

Cotton in Europe

Moors introduce cotton cultivation into Spain

866

Danes

Danes conquer the Kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia. For Wales this meant an era of tranquillity as the Saxons turned their attentions from the Welsh to the Danes

868

Book

At Kansu in China the worlds 1st printed book The Diamond Sutra is produced

878

Wessex vs Danes

The Saxon King Alfred of Wessex defeats the Danes in the West of England at the Battle of Edington

885-886

November 25: Going to Paris

Having already attacked Paris several times in previous decades, on the 25th of November 885 a large group of Vikings sailed up the Seine and attacked Paris in search of tribute. When Paris resisted the Vikings started a Siege that lasted almost a year.

892

Vikings

Britain invaded by 330 Viking ships, settling in the North of England

910

Anglo-Saxon London

Danes defeated by Edward the Elder, King of the Angles and Saxons, who gain London and Oxford.

930

Legislative assembly

Norse Settlers in Iceland found Alþhig - the worlds 1st legislative assembly

937

Battle of Brunanburh

Athelstan of Wessex defeats north Welsh, Scots and Norse at Battle of Brunanburh

942

942-945

949/950

952

954

England united

England united by King Eadred of Wessex

973

Edgar of Wessex

Edgar of Wessex is crowned the 1st King of England

976

Cordova University

Accepting students from all over Europe the school in Moorish city of Cordova (Córdoba, southern Spain) is the most important academic institution in the World and many regard this as the 1st University in Europe

980

Raids

Raids begin from Ireland, Scandinavia and Denmark, these will continue for the next 30 years

981-1037

Avicenna

Born in what is now Uzbekistan, the scholar Avicenna wrote hundreds of books on may subjects the most famous of which is The Canon of Medicine, translations of which were still in use until the early 19th century.

985

Book

Tripitaka, the book of Buddhist Scriptures is printed from wooden blocks in Chengdu, Szechwan Province, China

988

Vikings


The New Aberystwyth Guide - TJL Pritchard, 1824,[15]

In the year 988, Llanbadarn was destroyed by the Danes, whose ravages were so extensive, that Meredith, Prince of Wales, was forced to compound with them, and to pay a tribute of one penny for every man within his dominions, which, in Welsh, was called Glwmaen, i.e. the tribute of the black army.

989

Timbuktu University

Foundation of the Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali). This will eventually become home to the Koranic Sankore University which at its peak (between the 12th and 16th centuries), had over 25,000 students.

991

Vikings

Vikings renew raids on England

1000

Gunpowder

Chinese alchemists develop gunpowder as a medicine.

World Population


-6000
0.01
-4000
0.02
-2000
0.03
-1000
0.05
- 500
0.10
1
0.20
1000
0.31
1750
0.79
1800
0.98
1850
1.26
1900
1.65
1950
2.52
1955
2.76
1960
2.98
1965
3.33
1970
3.69
1975
4.07
1980
4.43
1985
4.83
1990
5.26
1995
5.67
2000
6.07
2005
6.45
2010
6.89
in Billions

1006

May 1: Superstar

Records exist from many parts of the world about a star so bright that was visible in the day. From these descriptions this is believed to be the brightest supernova in recoded history. The debris of this explosion are now called SN 1006

1011

Sulien

Sulien is born into a family educated for many generations in the clas monastic school / college of Llanbadarn. Showing an early aptitude for study, he was educated in the monastery and went on to be known as Sulien the Wise (1011-1091), become the abbot and go on to serve as bishop of St David's twice. Under his abbotship, Llanbadarn library will grow larger than those of Canterbury Cathedral and York Minster.

1013

King Swegn

For hundreds of years various Scandinavian tribes had been sending raiding parties to Britain and Ireland. Later they ran a 'protection racket' where they collected and annual tribute/fee/tax called Danegeld/Danegelt as a protection against future raids. This Danegeld was not always readily handed over and was resisted by King Aetheired amongst others. In 1013 Swegn Haraldsson Forkbeard decided that it would be better to base himself in Britain rather than have to keep on sailing from Denmark. To legitimise the 'protection racket' he overthrew King Aetheired and made himself King of England. Danish kings will rule England till 1042.

1016

King Cnut

Swegn's son Cnut becomes King of England till 1035

1017

Earldoms

Canute divides England into 4 earldoms to ease administration

1035

November 12: Canute Norway

Canute dies (at this time he is King of England, Norway and Denmark) after which Norway breaks away from Denmark

King Harold

After the death of King Canute the united English Kingdom starts to fragment. Canute's son Harold rules until he died in 1040

1039

Battle of Llanbadarn

Setting his sights on South Wales Gruffydd ap Llywelyn pushes through Ceredigion. In a battle at Llanbadarn Fawr prince Hywel ab Edwin is defeated, his lands ravaged and the area depopulated. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn appears to have held this area until his death in 1063.

1040

More Cnut

King Harold dies and Cnut son of Cnut (Harold's half brother) rules until he died in 1042.

1042

King Edward

Danish King Cnut II dies and Edward son of King Aetheired (who was deposed in 1013) becomes King returning Anglo-Saxon rule to England.

1045

Moveable Type

Invention of moveable type in China
It will be 390 years before it is used in Europe

1054

Supernova

Arabic and Chinese astronomers recorded a star bright enough to be visible in daylight for about a month. This is now know to be a star that went supernova (exploded). The debris of this explosion are now called the Crab Nebula

July: Divorce

Hundreds of years of tension between the Latin and Greek branches of Christianity culminate in what is now called the Great Schism when each excommunicated the other. Although the schism is still in place each side withdrew its excommunication in 1965

~1055

Top clas, Study Abroad

Sulien the Wise (1011-1091) returns to Llanbadarn after 5 years study in Scotland and 10 years study in Ireland. At this time Llanbadarn was most likely the foremost place of learning in Wales.

1066

October 14: Britain Colonised

Normans invade Britain, William I becomes King, although his conquest was not complete and it would take many years to exert Norman rule to the whole island.

1069

Winter 1069-70: Northern Wipe Out

With several of his Earls being killed in the north of England William I's response came to be know as Harrying of the North. Whole villages were wiped out, their winter food stores destroyed and their lands salted so they could not grow crops. Records show that decades later large numbers of villages remained empty.

1073

Raiding Wales

From his base as the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury Roger Montgomery leads raids into Wales devastating Ceredigion.

1080

Bishop

Abraham, the new Bishop of St David's, is killed by Viking pirates Abbot Sulien the Wise reluctantly becomes the Bishop of St David's a 2nd time (until 1085)

~1081

St David

Based at the monastic school of Llanbadarn, Rhygyfarch (eldest son of Sulien the Wise) publishes Vita Davidis (The Life of St. David), which remains the main source of information about the patron saint of Wales.

1086

Domesday Book

William the Conqueror commissioned a survey of the settlements of Britain - the resulting 35 volumes are known as the Domesday Book

1087-1100

Bridge 1 of 3

Tradition has it that the 1st bridge of 'Devil's Bridge' was built by the monks of Strata Florida Abbey in the time of William Rufus (1087-1100). The uncertainty of the date is further compounded as the formation of Strata Florida Abbey usually regarded as the year 1164. The bridge's use is recorded by Giraldus in 1188. The 2nd bridge will be built in 1753 and the 3rd in 1901.

1096

Oxford University

Teaching known to have been taking place in Oxford which will become Oxford University

1099

July 15: Crusade

The 1st Crusade ends with the killing of 40,000 Jews and Muslims.
Crusaders establish Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem under the Norman Knight Godfrey