In the current western calendar the year 1BC is followed by the year 1 AD - there is no year zero
In the current western calendar the year 1BC is followed by the year 1 AD - there is no year zero
There is no evidence of any human habitation on the current site of Aberystwyth - it is not know when or why the Iron age Hill Fort on Pendinas ceased to be used, however, around this time all similar structures in the rest of Britain were similarly abandoned.
In China it becomes a requirement that candidates for political office take civil service examinations
Probable date of crucifixion of Christ
Pedanius Dioscorides is the author of De Materia Medica which remained the most important book on medical herbs for 1500 years. Turkey
Claudis leads Roman invasion of Britain - Britain becomes a Roman colony.
London (Londinium) is founded by the Romans
Romans invade Wales
Caratacus uses guerilla tactics against the Romans in Wales.
It is known that the Romans built forts in this general area and exploited local mineral deposits (lead and silver). Roman artefacts have been found within several km of Aberystwyth, but there is no evidence of them using the actual site of Aberystwyth and it is believed to have remained uninhabited. Llanbadarn is reputed to be close to where the Roman road from North to South Wales (called Sarn Helen) crosses the river Rheidol. Sarn Helen passes close to Strata Florida and Llanddewi Brefi which along with Lanbadarn are the 3 most important ecclesiastic places in medieval Ceredigion.
London sacked by the Trinovantes and Iceni tribes. The Iceni of East Anglia, are led by their queen Boudicca.
Romans conquer Anglesey - the most important Druidic site in Britain
Boudicca's revolt against Rome fails and she commits suicide
Eruption of mount Vesuvius Italy
The invention of paper is reported to the Eastern Han Emperor of China
(Archaeological evidence suggests that paper had already been in use for 200 years)
Rome's population exceeds a million Italy
Emperor Hadrian's builds wall to keep the Scots out of England
Roman agriculture declines as cheap imports from North Africa depresses wheat prices Italy
Parthenon (in Rome) completed Italy
Galen's works on medicine were the standard reference works for western medicine for well over 1000 years. Turkey
Carausius the Roman military commander given the task of preventing piracy in the English Channel is sentenced to death for profiting from piracy. Benefiting from anti-Roman sentiment he rebelled from Rome and declared himself the Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. His reign was ended in 293, not by Rome, but by his treasurer Allectus, who assassinated him and seized the title.
Rome starts to withdraw troops from Britain
Sugar is being crystallised in India
Irish raiders start to establish permanent settlements in south-west Wales
Scots and Picts cross Hadiran's Wall to attack Romans in England
Fire destroys library at Alexandria Egypt
The much feared Huns moved through what it now Ukraine, which lead to a westward migration of many people in their path.
Half of the Roman troops in Britain al recalled to defend the contracting Roman empire.
Attacks on the Roman Empire in Europe cut Britain off from Rome
After mutinies and several rapid changes of leaders, the Roman provinces in Britain recognise one of the local soldiers Constantine III as their Roman Emperor. Constantine III takes the remaining troops to fight in Europe leaving the Roman rule in Britain without militarily supported. Many Romans chose to stay behind not wishing to leave/move their families.
Seeking protection from marauding Hun armies, the Visigoths migrated across what it now Germany and into the Roman Empire. After months of poor treatment by the Romans, the Visigoths destroy the Roman army and overrun Rome Italy
After the Romans left Britain, Irish tribes launched regular raids on western Britain and Wales seeking plunder and slaves. One slave taken around this time would go on to become St Patrick.
Cunedda a Roman-British official and warlord of the Votadini tribe from south-east Scotland, came with his sons and warriors to drive out the Irish. Having taken control of north and mid Wales, he partitioned the land between his 8 sons. The area given to his son Ceredig ap Cunedda is now know as Ceredigion.
The westward movement of the Huns into North Eastern Europe led to a build up of people in North Western Europe and some of them took to the water and over the North Sea. The Saxons establish colony in Essex. Over the next 150 years the Angles, Saxon, Jutes and Frisians migrate from Northern Germany to Britain.
Rome ignores Briton's request for help defending itself against invasion.
Initially Angles and Saxons mercenaries where invited into Britain to help protect local tribes. Over the next 150 years or so, many waves of Angles and Saxons came to settle - displacing the Britons where necessary. (Angles forming the Kingdom of Northumbria)
Atilla leads Huns into Italy
Vandals sack Rome Italy
Fall of the Roman Empire
Last Romano-Britain battle against Anglo-Saxon at Badon Hill
A band of monks lead by St Padarn (from Brittany) established a clas or monastery in Maes Heli.
Padarn stayed for 21 years as an abbot / bishop before returning to France.
The monastery - church - village came to be know as Llanbadarn and was the most significant settlement in this area for the next 600 years.
HISTORICAL. NOTICES OF LLANBADARN VAWR.*
It derived its name from Paternus, a distinguished Saint in the British History, of whom Cressy and Archbishop Usher give the following account. "The sanctity of St. Dubricius and St. David, drew into Britain, from foreign parts, St. Paternus, a devout young man, about the year 516, together with 847 Monks, who accompanied him: these fixed themselves in a place called Mauritania, and there Paternus built a church and monastery, in which he placed the Monks, under an Economist, a Provost, and a Dean. This monastery seems to have sent abroad, many colonies of religious men into the province, for we find that this saint built many monasteries and churches, through all the region called Ceretica, now Cardiganshire. The church he erected in Mauritania, was raised to the dignity of an Episcopal see, which he governed for one and twenty years, and was from him called Paternensis : he was recalled into his own native country of Lesser Britany, where he was made Bishop of Vannes, having left Kinoc, as successor to his former Bishopric." Mauritania is supposed to be a latinized British name of Llanbadarn vawr. The writer of the life of St. Paternus, or Patern, says, " he by feeding governed, and by governing fed the church of Ceretica." " Padarn was the son of Pedredin ab Emyr Llydaw, and cousin of Cadvan, with whom he came into Britain, and was the first of all in the college of Illtyd, (in Glamorgan-shire,) where he was dignified a Bishop. He removed from thence, and founded a congregation in Caredigion, at a place thence called Llanbadarn vawr, consisting of 120 members, where be had the title of Archbishop. He was one of the most distinguished saints of Britain, and several churches were dedicated to him. He was ranked with Dewi and Teilo, in the in the Welsh Historical Triads, under the appellation of 'The three blessed visitors of the Isle of Britain,' for they went about, preaching the faith to all degrees of people, not only without reward, but with alleviating the distresses of the poor, as far as their means extended.'-Cambrian Biography, page 278.
* The etymology of its name is simple. Llanbadarn vawr signifies the great church of Badarn, or Padarn, who erected it. Llan, as well as Eglwys, is the Welsh for church, and vawr for great.
Kingdom of Wessex Founded (south west England)
The monk Dionysius Exiguus from what is now Romania devised a scheme for numbering the years based on his (inaccurate) calculation of the birth of Christ. Although this scheme is now prevalent in Western Europe it was initially slow to be adopted until 731.
Plague kills millions around the Mediterranean.
Muhammad Saudi Arabia
After battle near Alton Priors, the King of Wessex - Ceawlin is deposed by Ceol
Kingdom of Mercia founded (the part of England east of Wales)
At this time the population of Britain are either Pagan or Celtic Christian organised as independent bishoprics. Pope Gregory sends missionaries to Britain to convert them to the Roman form Christianity with allegiance to the papacy. The mission is lead be a Benedictine monk called Augustine.
Development of the Hindu-Arabic number system
As part of his mission Augustine sought meetings (Synods) with the local Celtic Christian bishops. At the 1st of these the bishop of Llanbadarn was recoded as one of the 7 bishops present.
Mecca captured by Muhammad Saudi Arabia
Ine, the new King of Wessex draws up the earliest code of British laws that have survived
Moors invade southern Spain taking over from the Visigoths who moved in soon after the fall of the Roman empire 300 years earlier. Over 4 years the Moors moved north and took control of almost all of the Iberian peninsular. It would be nearly 800 years later that the last Arabic city would fall to the Christians in Spain.
The Welsh Chronicles record that the diocese of Llanbadarn was ravaged by Saxons. This is the last mention of an independent diocese. Subsequently, the see (seat = sedes in Latin) is dissolved and Llanbadarn is absorbed into the bishopric of St David's.
Foundation of Ez-Zitouna University in Tunis - Tunisia
Offa sizes the Kingdom of Mercia uniting most of England under his rule
'Offa's Dyke' is built to keep the Welsh out of England
The Arab mathematician al-Khwarizmi who many achievements include devising square roots and founding algebra Uzbekistan?
The penny coin is introduced by King Offa. A penny would remain in use till 1971 until it was replaced by a 'New Penny".
The Viking raids on Britain begin
Trade treaty between Emperor Charlemagne and King Offa - exporting English woven fabrics
Foundation of 'The House of Wisdom' Bayt al-Hikmah in Baghdad, which brought together manuscripts in Greek, Hindu, Persian, Egyptian, etc. The main purpose of this vast library (1,000,000 items by the 11th century) was to allow these works to be translated into Arabic, but it was also a great centre for study and included an observatory. The existence of many, long since perished, Greek texts is only know to us because of the Arabic translations made here. For the 1st time the intellectual achievements made by many great civilizations were brought together which opened the path for Muslim advances in Astronomy, Geography, Mathematics, Medicine and Science.
Salerno medical school formed - there is debate as to whether this institution counts as a university - if it does, then this is the oldest University in Europe. (southern Italy)
Moors introduce cotton cultivation into Spain
Foundation of Kairaouine Mosque University (al-Qarawiyyin) in Fez, Morocco.
Danes conquer the Kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia. For Wales this meant an era of tranquillity as the Saxons turned their attentions from the Welsh to the Danes
At Kansu in China the worlds 1st printed book The Diamond Sutra is produced
King Rhodri the Great dies. His lands a split between his sons Cadell, Merfyn and Anarawd. This led to years of infighting over these lands and left them unable to repel the attacks of the Normans, Saxons and Danes
The Saxon King Alfred of Wessex defeats the Danes in the West of England at the Battle of Edington
Having already attacked Paris several times in previous decades, on the 25th of November 885 a large group of Vikings sailed up the Seine and attacked Paris in search of tribute. When Paris resisted the Vikings started a Siege that lasted almost a year.
Britain invaded by 330 Viking ships, settling in the North of England
Danes defeated by Edward the Elder, King of the Angles and Saxons, who gain London and Oxford.
Norse Settlers in Iceland found Alþhig - the worlds 1st legislative assembly
Athelstan of Wessex defeats north Welsh, Scots and Norse at Battle of Brunanburh
Following the death of Idwal Foel (King of Gwynedd) in battle against the Saxon King Edmund, his uncle 'Hywel' takes over Gwynedd giving him control of most of Wales
Around this time it is said that a conference was held to re-examine old and current laws and compile a set of laws for Wales. The result is said to have been the 1st set of Welsh laws written down. Chronicalers of the time regarded these laws as particularly just so started referring to King Hywel as 'Hywel the Good' or Hywel Dda. The oldest surviving copies are reworked versions, written in Latin, about 300 years later.
Hywel Dda dies and soon his kingdom is fragmented with his estates in the lower half of the Wales being taken over by his 4 sons. One of these, Owain, becomes Prince of Ceredigion. The sons of Hywel were unable to hold Gwynedd, to the north, which was taken back by the sons of Idwal Foel.
Seeking revenge for the occupation of Gwynedd the sons of Idwal Foel repeatedly attack Owain though Ceredigion and down to Dyfed.
England united by King Eadred of Wessex
Seeking revenge for the attacks of 952 the sons of Hywel attack their 1st cousins in Gwynedd but are driven back. Idwal Foel's sons kill Owain's brother Edwin and raid Ceredigion on their return.
Already having paper and printing technology paper money is in use in China Overprinting of money would soon cause inflation.
Building of Al Azhar, the Mosque-University in Cairo (Egypt)
Edgar of Wessex is crowned the 1st King of England
Accepting students from all over Europe the school in Moorish city of Cordova (Córdoba, southern Spain) is the most important academic institution in the World and many regard this as the 1st University in Europe
Raids begin from Ireland, Scandinavia and Denmark, these will continue for the next 30 years
Born in what is now Uzbekistan, the scholar Avicenna wrote hundreds of books on may subjects the most famous of which is The Canon of Medicine, translations of which were still in use until the early 19th century.
Tripitaka, the book of Buddhist Scriptures is printed from wooden blocks in Chengdu, Szechwan Province, China
In the year 988, Llanbadarn was destroyed by the Danes, whose ravages were so extensive, that Meredith, Prince of Wales, was forced to compound with them, and to pay a tribute of one penny for every man within his dominions, which, in Welsh, was called Glwmaen, i.e. the tribute of the black army.
Foundation of the Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali). This will eventually become home to the Koranic Sankore University which at its peak (between the 12th and 16th centuries), had over 25,000 students.
Vikings renew raids on England
Chinese alchemists develop gunpowder as a medicine.
Records exist from many parts of the world about a star so bright that was visible in the day. From these descriptions this is believed to be the brightest supernova in recoded history. The debris of this explosion are now called SN 1006
Sulien is born into a family educated for many generations in the clas monastic school / college of Llanbadarn. Showing an early aptitude for study, he was educated in the monastery and went on to be known as Sulien the Wise (1011-1091), become the abbot and go on to serve as bishop of St David's twice. Under his abbotship, Llanbadarn library will grow larger than those of Canterbury Cathedral and York Minster.
For hundreds of years various Scandinavian tribes had been sending raiding parties to Britain and Ireland. Later they ran a 'protection racket' where they collected and annual tribute/fee/tax called Danegeld/Danegelt as a protection against future raids. This Danegeld was not always readily handed over and was resisted by King Aetheired amongst others. In 1013 Swegn Haraldsson Forkbeard decided that it would be better to base himself in Britain rather than have to keep on sailing from Denmark. To legitimise the 'protection racket' he overthrew King Aetheired and made himself King of England. Danish kings will rule England till 1042.
Swegn's son Cnut becomes King of England till 1035
Canute divides England into 4 earldoms to ease administration
Canute dies (at this time he is King of England, Norway and Denmark) after which Norway breaks away from Denmark
After the death of King Canute the united English Kingdom starts to fragment. Canute's son Harold rules until he died in 1040
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (from North Wales) defeats an English Army at Rhyd y Groes
Setting his sights on South Wales Gruffydd ap Llywelyn pushes through Ceredigion. In a battle at Llanbadarn Fawr prince Hywel ab Edwin is defeated, his lands ravaged and the area depopulated. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn appears to have held this area until his death in 1063.
King Harold dies and Cnut son of Cnut (Harold's half brother) rules until he died in 1042.
Danish King Cnut II dies and Edward son of King Aetheired (who was deposed in 1013) becomes King returning Anglo-Saxon rule to England.
Invention of moveable type in China
It will be 390 years before it is used in Europe
Arabic and Chinese astronomers recorded a star bright enough to be visible in daylight for about a month. This is now know to be a star that went supernova (exploded). The debris of this explosion are now called the Crab Nebula
Hundreds of years of tension between the Latin and Greek branches of Christianity culminate in what is now called the Great Schism when each excommunicated the other. Although the schism is still in place each side withdrew its excommunication in 1965
Sulien the Wise (1011-1091) returns to Llanbadarn after 5 years study in Scotland and 10 years study in Ireland. At this time Llanbadarn was most likely the foremost place of learning in Wales.
University of Parma founded Italy
Normans invade Britain, William I becomes King, although his conquest was not complete and it would take many years to exert Norman rule to the whole island.
With several of his Earls being killed in the north of England William I's response came to be know as Harrying of the North. Whole villages were wiped out, their winter food stores destroyed and their lands salted so they could not grow crops. Records show that decades later large numbers of villages remained empty.
From his base as the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury Roger Montgomery leads raids into Wales devastating Ceredigion.
Abraham, the new Bishop of St David's, is killed by Viking pirates Abbot Sulien the Wise reluctantly becomes the Bishop of St David's a 2nd time (until 1085)
Based at the monastic school of Llanbadarn, Rhygyfarch (eldest son of Sulien the Wise) publishes Vita Davidis (The Life of St. David), which remains the main source of information about the patron saint of Wales.
William the Conqueror commissioned a survey of the settlements of Britain - the resulting 35 volumes are known as the Domesday Book
Tradition has it that the 1st bridge of 'Devil's Bridge' was built by the monks of Strata Florida Abbey in the time of William Rufus (1087-1100). The uncertainty of the date is further compounded as the formation of Strata Florida Abbey usually regarded as the year 1164. The bridge's use is recorded by Giraldus in 1188. The 2nd bridge will be built in 1753 and the 3rd in 1901.
University of Bologna founded Italy
Teaching known to have been taking place in Oxford which will become Oxford University
The 1st Crusade ends with the killing of 40,000 Jews and Muslims.
Crusaders establish Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem under the Norman Knight Godfrey